The Book of Changes

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I / Increase

The idea of increase is expressed in the fact that the strong
lowest line of the upper trigram has sunk down and taken its
place under the lower trigram. This conception also
expresses the fundamental idea on which the Book of
Changes is based. To rule truly is to serve.

A sacrifice of the higher element that produces an increase
of the lower is called an out-and-out increase: it indicates
the spirit that alone has power to help the world.


INCREASE. It furthers one
To undertake something.
It furthers one to cross the great water.

Sacrifice on the part of those above for the increase of those below fills
the people with a sense of joy and gratitude that is extremely valuable for
the flowering of the commonwealth.
When people are thus devoted to
their leaders, undertakings are possible, and even difficult and dangerous
enterprises will succeed.

Therefore in such times of progress and
successful development it is necessary to work and make the best use of
time. This time resembles that of the marriage of heaven and earth, when
the earth partakes of the creative power of heaven, forming and bringing
forth living beings. The time of INCREASE does not endure, therefore it
must be utilized while it lasts.

To cross the great water and undertake something means that it is the
moment to make the effort, it is the moment to do the work. The increase
represents what grows, what is insufficient and must be increased.

Increase means favorable opportunity that would be used before it


Wind and thunder: the image of INCREASE.
Thus the superior man:
If he sees good, he imitates it;
If he has faults, he rids himself of them.

While observing how thunder and wind increase and strengthen each
other, a man can note the way to self-increase and self-improvement.
When he discovers good in others, he should imitate it and thus make
everything on earth his own. If he perceives something bad in himself, let
him rid himself of it. In this way he becomes free of evil. This ethical
change represents the most important increase of personality.

This means that the superior man only assimilates which would increase
his personality and strengthen his character. On the other hand if he find
some fault in himself, he will correct it.

In another analysis level this hexagram shows how complementary
forces would form a successful alliance to undertake something.


Nine at the beginning means:

It furthers one to accomplish great deeds.
Supreme good fortune. No blame.

If great help comes to a man from on high, this increased strength must
be used to achieve something great for which he might otherwise never
have found energy, or readiness to take responsibility. Great good
fortune is produced by selflessness, and in bringing about great good
fortune, he remains free of reproach.

A strong man situated in a humble position receives powerful means to
carry out some task, but he can be successful only through compliance
with his supporter (fourth yin).

Furthering one to accomplish great deeds means that there is only
place for great undertakings, implying definitively that there is not
margin for littleness or selfish attitudes.

Six in the second place means:

Someone does indeed increase him;
Ten pairs of tortoises cannot oppose it.
Constant perseverance brings good fortune.
The king presents him before God.
Good fortune.

A man brings about real increase by producing in himself the conditions
for it, that is, through receptivity to and love of the good. Thus the thing
for which he strives comes of itself, with the inevitability of natural law.
Where increase is thus in harmony with the highest laws of the universe,
it cannot be prevented by any constellation of accidents. But everything
depends on his not letting unexpected good fortune make him heedless;
he must make it his own through inner strength and steadfastness. Then
he acquires meaning before God and man, and can accomplish something
for the good of the world.

Ten pairs of tortoises mean unexpected factors or stratagems that
would interfere with the favorable situation. But one should not worry
about it.

Constant perseverance is achieved through modesty, being constant
and correct.

The king presenting himself before God means that the same increase
that has been reached will serve as a foundation for further growing.

Six in the third place means:

One is enriched through unfortunate events.
No blame, if you are sincere
And walk in the middle,
And report with a seal to the prince.

A time of blessing and enrichment has such powerful effects that even
events ordinarily unfortunate must turn out to the advantage of those
affected by them. These persons become free of error, and by acting in
harmony with truth they gain such inner authority that they exert
influence as if sanctioned by the letter and seal.

In China, when unfortunate events happened, the officer in charge
reported it to the prince, seeking help. The seal was used as a
recognition sign. Usually this direct approach seeking increase was
considered a bad behavior but in such situation (as a natural calamity
or a famine in some region) it wasn't incorrect.

To be sincere means not to use the increase for the own sake.

To receive something because of unfortunate facts means
compensation, repair, and recovery. It also means to recover which was

In another interpretation level, to receive an increase for unfortunate
events means interior, spiritual growth, accomplished by suffering.

Six in the fourth place means:

If you walk in the middle
And report the prince,
He will follow.
It furthers one to be used
In the removal of the capital.

It is important that there should be men who mediate between leaders
and followers. These should be disinterested people, especially in times
of increase, since the benefit is to spread from the leader to the people.
Nothing of this benefit should be held back in a selfish way; it should
really reach those for whom it is intended. This sort of intermediary,
who also exercises a good influence on the leader, is especially
important in times when it is a matter of great undertakings, decisive for
the future and requiring the inner assent of all concerned.

Reporting to the prince means a person of trust, confident, consultant.
To be followed by the prince means to made a good proposal, to
present a project worthy of trust, for that reason he is used to transfer the
capital. This means that he is entrust to carry out the project.

The transfer of capital means fundamental changes, to modify the power
balance in an organization or social group.

Nine in the fifth place means:

If in truth you have a kind heart, ask not.
Supreme good fortune.
Truly, kindness will be recognized as your virtue.

True kindness does not count upon nor ask about merit and gratitude but
acts from inner necessity. And such a truly kind heart finds itself
rewarded in being recognized, and thus the beneficent influence will
spread unhindered.

Having a kind heart means an earnest gesture of goodwill. When a ruler
has this disposition he will satisfy the expectation of others and achieve
supreme good fortune.

Nine at the top means:

He brings increase to no one.
Indeed, someone even strikes him.
He does not keep his heart constantly steady.

The meaning here is that through renunciation those in high place should
bring increase to those below. By neglecting this duty and helping no
one, they in turn lose the furthering influence of others and soon find
themselves alone. In this way they invite attacks. An attitude not
permanently in harmony with the demands of the time will necessarily
bring misfortune with it. Confucius says about this line:

The superior man sets his person at rest before he moves; he
composes his mind before he speaks; he makes his relations firm
before he asks for something. By attending to these three
matters, the superior man gains complete security. But if a man
is brusque in his movements, others will not cooperate. If he is
agitated in his word, they awaken no echo in others. If he asks
for something without having first established relations, it will
not be given to him. If no one is with him, those who would harm
him draw near.

Bringing increase to no one is a symbol of lack of sensibility. He is not
able to consent to the basic humanitarian feelings and it is a reason of
dissatisfaction and hate towards him.

That he does not keep his heart constantly steady means injustice and
erratic behavior

Whom he harmed will act on him with the same merciless intensity and
the situation will become untenable.