The Book of Changes

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Lin / Approach Overseeing

The Chinese word lin has a range of meanings that is not exhausted by any single word of
another language. The ancient explanations in the Book of Changes give as its first meaning,
"becoming great." What becomes great are the two strong lines growing into the hexagram
from below; the light-giving power expands with them. The meaning is then further extended
to include the concept of approach, especially the approach of what is lower.

Finally the
meaning includes the attitude of condescension of a man in high position toward the people,
and in general the setting to work on affairs. This hexagram is linked with the twelfth month
(January-February), when after the winter solstice, the light power begins to ascend again.


APPROACH has supreme success.
Perseverance furthers. (See Four Virtues)
When the eighth month comes,
There will be misfortune.

The hexagram as a whole points to a time of joyous, hopeful progress. Spring is approaching. Joy and
forbearance bring high and low nearer together. Success is certain. But we must work with determination
and perseverance to make full use of the propitiousness of the time. And on thing more: spring does not
last forever. In the eighth month the aspects are reversed.

Then only two strong, light lines are left; these
do not advance but are in retreat (see next hexagram). We must take heed of this change in good time. If
we meet evil before it becomes reality-before it has even begun to stir-we can master it.

Eight months represent an ephemeral period. Approaching mentions what arrives, what is coming, if what
arrives is big it is necessary to be prepared and try to take out the maximum advantage, because it will
retire later.


The earth above the lake:
The image of APPROACH.
Thus the superior man is inexhaustible
In his will to teach,
And without limits
In his tolerance and protection of the people.

The earth borders upon the lake from above. This symbolizes the approach and condescension of the man
of higher position to those beneath him. The two parts of the image indicate what his attitude toward these
people will be. Just as the lake is inexhaustible in depth, so the sage is inexhaustible in his readiness to
teach mankind, and just as the earth is boundlessly wide, sustaining and caring for all creatures on it, so
the sage sustains and cares for all people and excludes no part of humanity.

The waters of the lake must emerge humidifying the earth, that is to say, making it fertile, prosperous.
The lake means nurturing force. The lake is the factor that produces changes, it is the active factor; the
earth, on the other hand, is passive. Thus the people (the earth) trust and follow the superior man (the


Nine at the beginning means:

Joint approach.
Perseverance brings good fortune.

The good begins to prevail and to find response in influential circles. This in turn is an incentive to men of
ability. It is well to join this upward trend, but we must not let ourselves be carried away by the current of
the time; we must adhere perseveringly to what is right. This bring good fortune.

First yang motivates a response in fourth yin. Its influence is becoming manifest.

Nine in the second place means:

Joint approach.
Good fortune.
Everything furthers.

When the stimulus to approach comes from a high place, and when a man has the inner strength and
consistency that need no admonition, good fortune will ensue. Nor need the future cause any concern. He
is well aware that everything earthly is transitory, and that a descent follows upon every rise, but need not
be confused by this universal law of fate. Everything serves to further. Therefore he will travel the paths
of life swiftly, honestly, and valiantly.

Second yang resonates with fifth yin, which provides supervision. One follows its own will and does not
confront nor truly obey fifth yin (who is a soft wise), but one's will is right and everything goes forward.

Six in the third place means:

Comfortable approach.
Nothing that would further.
If one is induced to grieve over it,
One becomes free of blame.

Things are going well for a man: he achieves power and influence. But in this lies the danger that he may
relax, and confident of his position, allow the easygoing, careless mood to show itself in his dealings with
other people. This would inevitably be harmful. But there is possibility of a change of mood. If he regrets
his mistaken attitude and feels the responsibility of an influential position, he frees himself of faults.

Here reference is made to the danger that implies a confident approach, and such an attitude won't be
useful. To come closer comfortably means not to be cautious. But if one becomes anxious about its fault,
blame will not last long.

Six in the fourth place means:

Complete approach.
No blame.

While the three lower lines indicate rise to power and influence, the three upper lines show the attitude of
persons in higher position toward those of lower rank for whom they procure influence. Here is shown
the open-minded approach of a person of high rank to a man of ability whom he draws in to his own circle,
regardless of class prejudice. This is very favorable.

Here it is simply expressed that the approach takes place in perfect form, without flaws. To come closer
in perfect form implies suitability, security, knowledge of the approach point, domain of the situation. One
is able to lead the first yang without blame.

Six in the fifth place means:

Wise approach.
This is right for a great prince.
Good fortune.

A prince, or anyone in a leading position, must have the wisdom to attract to himself people of ability who
are expert in directing affairs. His wisdom consists both in selecting the right people and in allowing
those chosen to have a free hand without interference from him. For only through such self-restraint will
he find the experts needed to satisfy all of his requirements.

The leader can employ others in order to serve him, trusting and promoting the capable men (second

Six at the top means:

Great hearted approach.
Good-hearted approach.
Good fortune. No blame.

A sage who has put the world behind him and who in spirit has already withdrawn from life may, under
certain circumstances, decide to return once more to the here and now and to approach other men. This
means great good fortune for the men whom he teaches and helps. And for him this great hearted
humbling of himself is blameless.

A generous and humble sage is a blessing for the men whom he teaches.